Hier mal etwas Interessantes uber das Steuern eines Helikopters.
Ist aber wieder in Englisch...sorry !
MANEUVERING A HELICOPTER
A pilot maneuvers a helicopter by changing the pitch, or angle, of the rotor blades as they rotate through the air. As the blades rotate, they create lift. When the pitch of a blade is increased, more lift is produced. By directing the lift, the helicopter can be propelled in different directions. Pilots use three different controls to maneuver helicopters: rudder pedals, a cyclic pitch stick, and a collective pitch stick.
The pilot's feet control two rudder pedals, which are used to turn the helicopter to the left or right. The pedals control the pitch of the tail rotor blades, increasing or decreasing the thrust produced by that rotor. The tail rotor provides the sideways thrust needed to counteract the torque produced by the main rotor. When the thrust from the tail rotor balances the torque on the main rotor's shaft, the helicopter points forward. However, when the right pedal is pushed, the pitch of the tail rotor blades decreases and the thrust is reduced. The torque from the main rotor shaft then turns the nose of the helicopter to the right. When the left pedal is pushed, the tail rotor thrust increases, and the nose turns to the left. Tandem-rotor helicopters, which use two main rotors instead of a main rotor and a tail rotor, turn by tilting the rotors in different directions.
The cyclic pitch stick moves a helicopter in a chosen direction by controlling the direction of the main rotor's thrust. This stick affects the pitch of the rotor blades as they cycle through a rotation. Increasing the pitch of a blade at a particular point during its rotation increases the amount of lift at that point. By selecting where along the rotor's path lift is increased, the pilot can tilt the helicopter forward, backward, or to either side.
The cyclic pitch stick changes rotor pitch through a device called a swashplate. This device consists of two circular plates that surround the rotor shaft. The upper plate rotates with the shaft and the rotor blades and rests on the lower plate, which is controlled by the cyclic pitch stick. Moving the cyclic pitch stick forward, for example, tilts the lower plate, which in turn tilts the upper plate controlling the rotor blades. The swashplate lowers the pitch of the blades as they pass the right side of the helicopter, momentarily decreasing lift and causing the blades to flap downward. The swashplate at the same time increases the pitch of the blades as they pass the left side of the helicopter, increasing lift and causing the blades to flap upward. The front of the helicopter then points lower than the rear, and so the helicopter moves forward. Pushing the cyclic pitch stick in any direction will tip the rotor blades accordingly, allowing the helicopter to travel in any direction. When the stick is centered, the helicopter hovers in midair.
The collective pitch stick is a lever that allows the helicopter to climb and descend vertically. It changes the pitch of all the main rotor blades equally, and performs much the same function as the pedals perform on the tail rotor. Pulling or pushing on the lever increases or decreases the thrust produced, varying the lift. Most collective pitch sticks also have a twist grip that changes the speed of the engine, in much the same way as the throttle of a motorcycle. Increasing rotor speed is another way to increase lift, but this is not normally done.
The engine of a helicopter powers a transmission system that turns the shaft of the main rotor blades. The tail rotor is driven by a gearbox powered by the main rotor as it spins. Piston engines, similar to those in small fixed-wing airplanes, power most small helicopters. Large commercial helicopters, and almost all military helicopters, use turboshaft engines. A turboshaft engine is similar to a turbojet engine used to power a jet aircraft (see Jet Propulsion: Turbojet Engines). A turbojet engine is essentially a large cylindrical chamber open on both ends, with a rotating shaft inside. Fan blades on the rotating shaft draw in air from one end of the jet. Additional blades compress the air. Fuel is injected into the compressed air and then ignited, producing hot expanding gas that exits the other end of the jet. In a turbojet, the thrust from the exhaust gases propels the aircraft forward. In a helicopter turboshaft, the thrust powers a second shaft that turns the main rotor blades. Unlike jet airplanes, which use incoming air in forward flight to cool the engine, helicopters use cooling fans driven by the engine.
In the event of a power failure, a helicopter can land safely by going into autorotation, or unpowered rotation of the rotor blades. The rotors will continue to turn because the helicopter's descent through the air produces an airflow over the blades and rotates them. When the rotor blades turn as the helicopter falls, they produce enough lift to allow the pilot to control the landing. Since the tail rotor gets power from the spinning of the main rotor, rather than directly from the engine itself, the tail rotor will continue to provide directional control. This safety feature allows the pilot to maintain a limited degree of control during an emergency landing.